In most disc hernias, a part of exterior fibers of annulus fibrosus had not torn and the disc material is totally within the disc; but, there is diffuse disc protuberance. Although it is less frequent, the cartilaginous tissue bulges out the torn sheath or a free fragment compresses spinal canal and nerve root.
Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurological disease which is secondary to decreased level of a substance, namely dopamine, in brain. Resulting from decrease or injury of dopamine-releasing cells of brain secondary to aging, the disease leads to movement disorders and involuntary movements. The disease is usually manifested by tremor in hands and feet, slowness of movement, rigidity and gait instability.
Musculoskeletal disorders are the most common work related/occupational diseases seen among office workers using computers. The most common complaints are neck pain, low back pain, joint pain in the shoulder, elbow and wrist, paresthesia/numbness, weakness, joint stiffness in arms or hands.
Bariatric surgical procedures cause causing malabsorption of nutrients, or by a combination of both gastric restriction and malabsorption. Bariatric procedures also often cause hormonal changes. Most weight loss surgeries today are performed using minimally invasive techniques.
By-pass operation is surgical method applied when an artery cannot transport sufficient level of blood to a part that it feeds due to a tightened or occluded part upon itself. There is a bridge connected thanks to a resection of other veins and their preparation in the upper part of the occluded area and it enables the sufficient level of blood to reach this area. "Coroner by-pass operation" are the by-pass operations in occlusions in "coroner veins" which feeds heart.
Today, using special ultrasonography (USG) devices it is possible to recognize approximately 50% of fetal abnormalities during 11th and 14th weeks of pregnancy. First trimester serum screening is a blood test which can be combined with the result of the special ultrasonography screening.