Designer babies, the end of diseases, genetically modified humans that never age. Outrageous things that used to be science fiction are suddenly becoming reality. The only thing we know for sure is that things will change irreversibly.
Hybrid Medical Animation
CD28 and CTLA-4, together with their ligands, B7-1 and B7-2, constitute one of the dominant costimulatory pathways that regulate T and B cell responses. CD28 and CTLA-4 are structurally homologous molecules that are members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene superfamily. CTLA-4 is up-regulated rapidly following T cell activation and CD28 ligation. Although both CTLA-4 and CD28 can bind to the same ligands, CTLA-4 binds to B7-1 and B7-2 with a 20-100 fold higher affinity than CD28.